PROCESSING DEVICE

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Here @www.techteazer.com, we help to turn computer newbie’s into great pros. I am going to share with you today, on how to process device.
·   The processing device:
The processing device is the part of the computer used in data processing or analysis. These devices are the central processing unit (CPU) and the memory (Read Only Memory and Random Access Memory) located inside the system unit.
·   The central processing unit (CPU):
The CPU consists of electronic circuits that interpret or execute program instructions as well as communicate with the input, output and storage devices. Data processing includes data arrangement, data distribution, data summarization, data classification, data transformation, data saving etc. data processing is simply the conversion of data into useful information.
·   The CPU consists of three functional parts:

1.     The control unit: This unit is responsible for the CPU’s co-ordination activities. It does all the control of CPU’s activities and the external devices. It has a timer too.
2.     The Register: This is the part of the CPU in which logic, numeric and other constants which occur regularly in everyday manipulations are stored temporarily. This saves the CPU time of fetching data or instruction again and again from the memory. The speed of the CPU is a very important factor and it is measured based on the number of basic instructions it can execute in a second. Its units are Hertz (Hz), Kilohertz (Hhz) and Megahertz (Mhz).
The three important registers of the CPU are:
a.    THE PROGRAM COUNTER: it indicates the next instruction in the memory to be handled.
b.   The accumulator: It retains the result or data to be manipulated with another one by the ALU.
c.    The instruction Register: It holds the instruction to be executed from the memory before interpretation by the CPU.
3. The Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU): This is the center where the processing of all arithmetic (addition, subtraction, division) or instructions are executed.
The above image shows about CPU and its functional parts.
      MICRO PROCESSOR.
The micro-processor or simply processor is the product of combining many integrated circuits into one small chip. The micro-processor chip is the brain of the computer. It is built on silicon which is about 0.50cm long and 0.40cm wide. The increase in the number of transistors in the chip, makes signals travel less between chips and transfer rate becomes more effective. This increases the rate of transferred bits, and becomes more efficient. The processor speed (speed of processing data) it a better value. Processer 8080 of the first IBM-PC was among the early used micro processer. Other produced were 80286, 80386, 80556 and then Intel Pentium I. with range 65 200MHZ. they are good for windows 3.1, 95 and 98. The multimedia extension(MMX)has speeds of 166 MHz and above and it is improved on the quality and activities of multimedia tasks such as good quality graphics, sound videos etc. The Intel Pentium II comes in speeds of 220-500 MHz. They are good for windows 98, NT and above. The Celeron is based on Pentium II, a fast and less expensive micro processor chip. Its speed ranges from 266 MMz to 702 GHz. Pentium  III has speeds of 1.12 GHz.
      Pentium IV has speeds from 1.2 GHz to 4.3 GHz.

      THE MEMORY
The memory is a place where information is kept or reserved for future use. The computer memory consists of electronic circuits, just as the C.P.U does. the main memory is the internal storage device where data and information are kept in the computer before they are processed. It also holds the data after it has been processed, before it is released to the output device. The memory holds the programs (computer instructions) needed by the central processing unit. The two types of memory are read only memory (ROM) and Random Access memory (RAM). The ROM has a fixed or permanent data in the computer. It should be noted that the instructions needed for the CPU data processing are stored in the ROM. The CPU stores both the data and the computer programming for programme in the RAM at the time of data processing. The RAM loses its content in a case of electricity failure. The main memory, main storage, core storage, primary storage or primary memory.
      The RAM is a temporary storage memory of the computer. The higher the RAM size, the higher the speed. Increased RAM size increases computer performance. To upgrade the memory is to increase the RAM size.

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